Blood Transfusion…

Blood

Blood acts as the transportation medium of the body letting out a systematic way for the activeness of elements, by means of deliveries and pickups. As blood circulates throughout the body, it delivers oxygen and nutrients to all the places they’re needed. Blood also collects waste products, such as carbon dioxide, and carries them to the organs responsible for making sure the wastes leave the body.

Blood is a mixture of cells and liquid and mainly consists of the following,

* Red blood cells carry oxygen to the body’s tissues and remove carbon dioxide. Red blood cells make up about 40% to 45% of a person’s blood and live for 120 days.
* White blood cells are part of the immune system, and its main defense against infection. White blood cells make up less than 1% of a person’s blood.
* Platelets are cell fragments that clot, which helps to prevent and control bleeding. They are about 5% of our blood.
* Plasma is a yellowish mixture of water, proteins, electrolytes, carbohydrates, cholesterol, hormones, and vitamins. About 55% of our blood is plasma.

Blood type and Rh

How many people have it?

O +

40 %

O –

7 %

A +

34 %

A –

6 %

B +

8 %

B –

1 %

AB +

3 %

AB –

1 %


According to a Japanese institute that does research on blood types, there are certain personality traits that seem to match up with certain blood types. How do you rate?

(1) TYPE O

You want to be a leader, and when you see something you want, you keep striving until you achieve your goal. You are a trend-setter, loyal, passionate, and self-confident. Your weaknesses include vanity and jealously and a tendency to be too competitive.

(2) TYPE A

You like harmony, peace and organization. You work well with others, and are sensitive, patient and affectionate. Among your weaknesses are stubbornness and an inability to relax.

(3) TYPE B

You’re a rugged individualist, who’s straightforward and likes to do things your own way. Creative and flexible, you adapt easily to any situation. But your insistence on being independent can sometimes go too far and become a weakness.

(4) TYPE AB

Cool and controlled, you’re generally well liked and always put people at ease. You’re a natural entertainer who’s tactful and fair. But you’re standoffish, blunt, and have difficulty making decisions.

What are the Blood Types that you can transfer in/out ?

You Can Receive

If Your Type Is

O-

O+

B-

B+

A-

A+

AB-

AB+

AB+

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

AB-

YES

YES

YES

YES

A+

YES

YES

YES

YES

A-

YES

YES

B+

YES

YES

YES

YES

B-

YES

YES

O+

YES

YES

O-

YES

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Top 10 Richest People in the World

(1) William H. Gates III

Age: 43
Nationality: American
Martial Status: Married
Children: 2
Education: Harvard dropout
Worth: $90 Billion

We should all just face the fact that Bill Gates will one day rule the world. By the time Windows 2015 comes out, all will fear Bill’s wrath. But you gotta admit that it doesn’t look like it went to his head; the richest human on Earth, and he has the dorkiest haircut money could buy.

The son of a lawyer father and teacher mother, Gates dropped out of preschool to devote all of his time to inventing Microsoft with chum Paul Allen, then just 3 years old. After drooling all over the HVAC tubes, Bill decided to go back to school for a few more years, eventually dropping out of Harvard University to work on Microsoft.

The rest, as they all too frequently say, is history. Microsoft became this huge international corporate behemoth, and is currently fighting off anti-trust investigations and accusations that it holds a monopoly. When Bill rules the world, he’s going to come down and fire those federal court judges with extreme prejudice. They’ll never work on his planet again!

Gates relinquished his role as President of Microsoft in 1998, and as CEO on January 13, 2000; both posts are now held by Steve Ballmer. However, Bill remains Chairman and “chief software architect” of the company, as well as its largest shareholder. So they still let him come to board meetings.

Mr. Bill once gave $17 Billion to charity, which makes Ted Turner’s paltry offering of $1 billion to the UN look like chump change. He’s also written a couple of books and is heavily invested in biotechnology and cellular and satellite technology. Investors, call your brokers

(2) Warren Edward Buffet

Age: 68
Nationality: American
Marital Status: Married
Children: 3
Education: Columbia
Worth: $36 Billion

A distant second, Warren Buffet also has a quarter century on Mr. Gates, so he’s had lots of time to build up his not-too-shabby cache of $36 billion. Frankly, we don’t know what he’s been doing with his time… apart from heading up investment conglomerate Berkshire Hathaway, that is. Warren took over 30 years ago, and the company has averaged a 25% annual rate of return since.

Strangely enough, Buffet’s investment style is conservative, leaning more to the long-term buy. Warren owns about 40 percent of the company, and at over $47,000 a share, it will be a while before anyone buys him out. Much better to try to get in at Microsoft, or strike oil, where you don’t need money up front.

(3). Paul Gardner Allen

Age: 46
Nationality: American
Marital Status: Single
Children: 0
Education: WSU dropout
Worth: $30 Billion

Another Microsoft billionaire, Paul Allen is the buddy who dropped out with Bill Gates to build the software company that now holds a monopolistic stranglehold on the world. Paul dropped out of Microsoft some time ago to spend his time privately investing his money and sipping piña coladas, but he still holds a stake in the company. His current baby is Vulcan Ventures, with which he pursues his dream of a “wired world” by buying up cable operators and other technology-related companies.

It’s not all boring tech stuff, though. Paul was also smart enough to invest in sports teams like the Portland Trailblazers and Seattle Seahawks. Single guy, 30 billion, owns a couple sports teams, knows Bill Gates personally… poor baby.

(4). Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah

Age: 53
Nationality: Bruneian
Marital Status: Married
Children: 10
Education: Sandhurst Royal Military Academy
Worth: $30 Billion

The 29th Sultan of Brunei was educated in his early years by tutors and private institutions before winging his way north to Britain. There, he entered Sandhurst Royal Military Academy as an officer cadet. The training seems to have paid off, as he is now Sultan and Ruler of Brunei, as well as Prime Minister, Defense Minister, Finance Minister, Religious Figurehead, and Grand High Poobah. All elected offices. Kidding! This guy can go to the bathroom and still have a cabinet meeting.

All of his money is in, say it with me now, oil, gas, investments, and yes, the ever-popular sweat of his people. Especially that oil thing, which has made so many billionaires in the Middle East. The illustrious Sultan also has two wives and ten kids. So lets see… 6 jobs, 2 wives, 10 kids, 2 turtledoves, 1 dictatorship, and he’s an avid polo player. So much accomplished, and a mere 53 years old.

(5). King Fahd Bin Abdulaziz Alsaud

Age: 77
Nationality: Saudi Arabian
Marital Status: Married
Children: 1
Worth: $28 Billion
Born in Riyadh in 1923, the King has spent his life on one diplomatic mission after another. He has also held such posts as Minister of Education, Minister of the Interior, and, of course, the King. He was present at the signing of the United Nations Charter in 1945, the coronation of Queen Liz the second in 1953, and a meeting with Richard Nixon in the U.S. in 1974 (taped recordings of this meeting still exist to this day, but no one knows where).

He came to power in 1982, and all of his money is in oil, investments, property, and the sweat of his people (sound familiar?). All because of the great defining factor of birth. Yes, birth and dumb luck. Ya gotta love it.

(6). Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nahyan

Age: 66
Nationality: Abu Dhabian
Worth: $20 Billion

Sheikh Zayed’s home country of Abu Dhabi has grown over the last half century into one of the richest in the United Arab Emirates. Educated by local clerics and later by wandering Bedouin tribesmen in the desert, the Sheikh’s defining achievement has been the management of supply and distribution of water. This is an important thing in the desert, so you can imagine he is quite popular there.

All of his money is in oil, investments, vast property, and the sweat of his people. And water. For the love of God, don’t forget the water.

(7). Steven Anthony Ballmer

Age: 43
Nationality: American
Marital Status: Married
Children: 2
Education: Stanford and Harvard
Worth: $19.5 Billion

The first of the Microsoft Billionaires on our list, Steve actually lived down the hall from Bill Gates at Harvard, and is now the President and Chief Executive Officer of Mr. Bill’s little venture. Many revere/blame him for the supposed monopoly Microsoft Corp. now holds, because of his tenacity and amazing business know-how.

He joined the company in 1980 and has held a number of positions, starting as Bill’s personal towel boy, and leading up to VP of Sales and Support before becoming the Prez in ’98. Ballmer was appointed CEO of Microsoft on January 13, 2000. Not a bad little gig.

(8). Amir Jaber Al-Ahmed Al-Jaber Al sabah

Age: 77
Nationality: Kuwaiti
Worth: $17 Billion

The man’s money is in oil, investments, property, and the sweat of his people. And this is just what’s left over since we kicked Saddam Hussein out of the neighborhood. Imagine the filthy stinkin’ riches that he had prior to the burning of thousands of his oil wells. This is why we recommend Microsoft or oil baron as the best way to becoming a billionaire. You’re born, you inherit oil fields, you live the easy life in the Middle East… you just can’t beat it.

(9). Phillip F. Anschutz

Age: 59
Nationality: American
Marital Status: Married
Children: 3
Education: Kansas
Worth: $16.5 Billion

Phil is the kind of guy whose father was a rich oil billionaire, but decided he didn’t like the family business. Phil preferred real estate and railroads, and he still made a bundle. Rather than just being born lucky (although we’re sure that didn’t hurt), Anschutz is a savvy businessman. He has interests in fiber optics companies such as Qwest Communications International, LA sporting interests, huge cattle ranches in Wyoming, and lots of downtown Denver real estate interests. But let’s face it: the biggest chunk was inherited.

(10). Michael Dell

Age: 34
Nationality: American
Marital Status: Married
Children: 4
Education: U. Texas
Worth: $16.5 Billion

Just barely squeaking in at number ten is the youngest of all of our billionaires, the young pup who founded Dell Computers. Mike dropped out of U. Texas at 19, put up his BMW to get a business loan, and started selling people PCs by mail order. The day his former classmates were graduating, his sales had already hit $70 million a year. Today, of course, he sells $2 million a day, and the company revenues are about $7.8 billion a year. He has passed IBM in annual sales, and is closing in on industry leader Compaq. The bastard.

How Nuclear Bombs Work…

Nuclear bombs involve the forces, strong and weak, that hold the nucleus of an atom together, especially atoms with unstable nuclei. There are two basic ways that nuclear energy can be released from an atom:

* Nuclear fission – You can split the nucleus of an atom into two smaller fragments with a neutron. This method usually involves isotopes of uranium (uranium-235, uranium-233) or plutonium-239.
* Nuclear fusion -You can bring two smaller atoms, usually hydrogen or hydrogen isotopes (deuterium, tritium), together to form a larger one (helium or helium isotopes); this is how the sun produces energy

In either process, fission or fusion, large amounts of heat energy and radiation are given off.

To build an atomic bomb, you need:

* A source of fissionable or fusionable fuel
* A triggering device
* A way to allow the majority of fuel to fission or fuse before the explosion occurs (otherwise the bomb will fizzle out)

Atomic Structure
Before we talk about the physics of atomic bombs, it’s a good idea to go over the basic properties of atoms.

Atoms are incredibly small — the smallest is about 10-8­ cm in diameter. For an idea of how small this really is, think of a baseball. The diameter of a baseball is about 7 cm. If an atom were the size of a baseball, an actual baseball would be about 3044 miles high.

An atom is made up of three subatomic particles — protons, neutrons and electrons. The center of an atom, called the nucleus, is composed of protons and neutrons. Protons are positively charged, neutrons have no charge at all and electrons are negatively charged. The proton-to-electron ratio is always on­e to one, so the atom as a whole has a neutral charge. For example, a carbon atom has six protons and six electrons.

An atom’s properties can change considerably based on how many of each particle it has:

* The number of protons in an atom determines the type of element. Elements are classified by their atomic number, which is simply the number of protons in an atom’s nucleus. Some common elements on Earth are oxygen, carbon and hydrogen. You can see the elements on the periodic table here.­
* There are different types of atoms called isotopes. These isotopes look and act the same in nature — the only difference is the number of neutrons in the nucleus.
* You can calculate the “mass” of an atom by counting the number of protons and neutrons inside the nucleus. This number is called the ­atomic mass. Carbon has three isotopes, for example — carbon-12 (six protons + six neutrons), carbon-13 (six protons + seven neutrons) and carbon-14 (six protons + eight neutrons).

The Earth….

From the perspective we get on Earth, our planet appears to be big and sturdy with an endless ocean of air. From space, astronauts often get the impression that the Earth is small with a thin, fragile layer of atmosphere. For a space traveler, the distinguishing Earth features are the blue waters, brown and green land masses and white clouds set against a black background.

Many dream of traveling in space and viewing the wonders of the universe. In reality all of us are space travelers. Our spaceship is the planet Earth, traveling at the speed of 108,000 kilometers (67,000 miles) an hour.

Earth is the 3rd planet from the Sun at a distance of about 150 million kilometers (93.2 million miles). It takes 365.256 days for the Earth to travel around the Sun and 23.9345 hours for the Earth rotate a complete revolution. It has a diameter of 12,756 kilometers (7,973 miles), only a few hundred kilometers larger than that of Venus. Our atmosphere is composed of 78 percent nitrogen, 21 percent oxygen and 1 percent other constituents.

Earth is the only planet in the solar system known to harbor life. Our planet’s rapid spin and molten nickel-iron core give rise to an extensive magnetic field, which, along with the atmosphere, shields us from nearly all of the harmful radiation coming from the Sun and other stars. Earth’s atmosphere protects us from meteors, most of which burn up before they can strike the surface.

From our journeys into space, we have learned much about our home planet. The first American satellite, Explorer 1, discovered an intense radiation zone, now called the Van Allen radiation belts. This layer is formed from rapidly moving charged particles that are trapped by the Earth’s magnetic field in a doughnut-shaped region surrounding the equator. Other findings from satellites show that our planet’s magnetic field is distorted into a tear-drop shape by the solar wind. We also now know that our wispy upper atmosphere, once believed calm and uneventful, seethes with activity — swelling by day and contracting by night. Affected by changes in solar activity, the upper atmosphere contributes to weather and climate on Earth.

Besides affecting Earth’s weather, solar activity gives rise to a dramatic visual phenomenon in our atmosphere. When charged particles from the solar wind become trapped in Earth’s magnetic field, they collide with air molecules above our planet’s magnetic poles. These air molecules then begin to glow and are known as the auroras or the northern and southern lights.

Earth Statistics
Mass (kg) 5.976e+24
Mass (Earth = 1) 1.0000e+00
Equatorial radius (km) 6,378.14
Equatorial radius (Earth = 1) 1.0000e+00
Mean density (gm/cm^3) 5.515
Mean distance from the Sun (km) 149,600,000
Mean distance from the Sun (Earth = 1) 1.0000
Rotational period (days) 0.99727
Rotational period (hours) 23.9345
Orbital period (days) 365.256
Mean orbital velocity (km/sec) 29.79
Orbital eccentricity 0.0167
Tilt of axis (degrees) 23.45
Orbital inclination (degrees) 0.000
Equatorial escape velocity (km/sec) 11.18
Equatorial surface gravity (m/sec^2) 9.78
Visual geometric albedo 0.37
Mean surface temperature 15°C
Atmospheric pressure (bars) 1.013
Atmospheric composition

Nitrogen
Oxygen
Other
77%
21%
2%

The Earth is divided into several layers which have distinct chemical and seismic properties (depths in km):


Tectonic plates

According to plate tectonics theory, the outermost part of the Earth’s interior is made up of two layers: the lithosphere, comprising the crust, and the solidified uppermost part of the mantle. Below the lithosphere lies the asthenosphere, which forms the inner part of the mantle. The asthenosphere behaves like a superheated and extremely viscous liquid.

The lithosphere essentially floats on the asthenosphere and is broken up into what are called tectonic plates. These plates are rigid segments that move in relation to one another at one of three types of plate boundaries: convergent, divergent and transform. The last occurs where two plates move laterally relative to each other, creating a strike-slip fault. Earthquakes, volcanic activity, mountain-building, and oceanic trench formation can occur along these plate boundaries.
The main plates are

Plate name Area(km² ) Covering
African Plate 61.3 Africa
Antarctic Plate 60.9 Antarctica
Australian Plate 7.2 Australia
Eurasian Plate 67.8 Asia and Europe
North American Plate 75.9 North America and north-east Siberia
South American Plate 43.6 South America
Pacific Plate 103.3 Pacific Ocean

Welcome to the "Reading Shouts"….

Hi All there..

Just thought of making a stage of sharing out any funny, imperative, classic and amusing… articles, segments and basically anything…

So you are more than welcome to share “what you know” about what i am posting here. Just “SHOUT” your own comment(s) and let others to “READ” your Knowledge and expertise.

Thanking in advance…